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What is Purchasing Department(อ่าน 381 ครั้ง)
What is Purchasing Department เมื่อ: พฤษภาคม 16, 2021, 02:28:07 AM
What is Purchasing Department
Purchasing Department: Characteristics, Functions

The purchasing department is the section of a company responsible for all activities for the business acquisition financing of raw materials, spare parts, services, etc., as required by the organization. It provides a service that is the backbone of many industrial, retail, and military organizations.

Ensures that supplies necessary to operate the business are ordered and kept in inventory. This department is at the center of successful supply chain management, and is responsible for minimizing the cost of ordered products, controlling inventory levels, and establishing strong relationships with suppliers.

A good purchasing department will demand quality from suppliers and will follow up on orders from the beginning to the reception. Help other departments identify needs, manage the requisition process, and obtain competitive prices. They usually act as controllers to ensure compliance with budgets.

Characteristics
Act as trusted advisers to senior management
The purchasing department is involved in corporate planning and budgeting at a high level. This makes it possible to design reverse engineering costs and explore potentially less expensive and / or higher quality alternatives.

Drive supplier innovation
More than just demanding the lowest price, the purchasing department works with suppliers to reduce the underlying cost of their products and services. They are intimately involved with "the life cycle of innovation", from initial idea to manufacturing and continuous improvement.
Provide insight into key vendor data
Companies can draw on this information to create predictive analytics, providing a deeper insight into markets.

Manage and mitigate supply chain risk
Economic crises have taught the value of being aware of the stability of suppliers. The purchasing department has a much clearer view of that area than any other part of the organization.

Promote agile staffing and talent development
It is necessary to cross functional and geographic boundaries to find the right candidates for the purchasing department.
In some cases, the answer is in outsourcing or using shared service organizations.

Features
Obtaining materials
For a manufacturing company this could include raw materials, but it could also include tools, machinery, or even the necessary office supplies for the sales team and secretaries.
In a retail business, the purchasing department must ensure that there are always enough products on the shelves or in warehouses to keep the store well stocked.

It is especially important to keep your inventory warehouse at a reasonable level. Overinvesting large amounts of money in inventory could lead to stock problems and a lack of capital for other types of expenses, such as research and development, or advertising.

Evaluate prices

A purchasing department is in charge of continuously evaluating whether you are receiving the materials at the best possible price, in order to maximize profitability.

You need to compare prices so that you can find the best suppliers with the most sensible prices for company-specific size orders.

The purchasing department can contact alternate vendors, negotiate better prices for higher volume orders, or inquire about the possibility of obtaining lower priced products from a variety of other sources.

Vendor pre-approval
The purchasing department evaluates suppliers in terms of price, quality, customer opinions and time to complete orders, producing a list of approved suppliers.

Track orders
Orders are documented with purchase order forms. These specify important information about the materials ordered, as well as the quantity ordered.

These forms are used to ensure that ordered products are received and to track the time it takes for orders to complete.

Office work
The purchasing department handles all the documentation related to the purchase and delivery of the materials.

This means working closely with your accounting department to ensure that there is enough money to purchase items, that cash flows smoothly, and that all payments are made on time.

Policy compliance
Before making a purchase, the purchasing department has to ensure that it complies with the formalities for the acquisition and approval of the budget, and it must ensure that the materials are purchased following the general policy of the organization.

Importance
Get lower costs
The purchasing department plays an important role in maximizing business profits. Compare prices and negotiate with suppliers so that the company obtains the best possible price on the necessary products.

You can also provide savings by taking advantage of guarantees and discounts that non-specialists generally forget.

It helps to save, providing better transparency in company spending. This will allow you to negotiate better contracts and free up cash flow.

Prevent insufficient materials

The purchasing department has to identify which products are critical to the business and take appropriate measures to protect its supply chain.

To ensure that insufficient materials do not affect productivity, the purchasing department uses techniques such as multiple sourcing.

Having multiple sources means using multiple vendors that offer the same products. If there is a problem with one supplier, orders can be increased to another to compensate for the failure.

Improve quality
The purchasing department helps improve quality by setting performance goals. Then it tracks actual performance against those goals.

It is critical to measure quality characteristics using indicators for attributes, such as durability, product appearance, or timeliness of delivery.

They work closely with suppliers to develop their processes and help them improve quality.

Manage relationships

The challenge for the purchasing department is to get the supplier interested in working with the company. Make the supplier invest in a long-term relationship.

The department also has to manage relationships within the company. You have to work with internal stakeholders, such as marketing, finance, logistics, and distribution, to ensure that they are all aligned.

Seek innovation
Because the purchasing department is always in contact with a variety of external businesses, it is in an ideal position to acquire innovative products that can provide a competitive advantage to the business in terms of price, quality or convenience.



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Re: What is Purchasing Department ตอบกลับ #2 เมื่อ: พฤษภาคม 16, 2021, 02:29:36 AM
A deadly failure of leadership
Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s botched response to the coronavirus “may have cost thousands of lives,” said Jonathan Calvert in The Sunday Times. In January and February, with the virus spreading rapidly from China to other countries, Johnson skipped five meetings of Cobra—the committee of ministers, intelligence chiefs, and generals that convenes in times of national emergency and is usually chaired by the prime minister. Rather than plan for the coming pandemic, Johnson took a Brexit victory lap and reshuffled his cabinet, and then enjoyed a two-week vacation at a country mansion with his pregnant fiancée. It wasn’t until March 2 that Johnson finally showed up for Cobra, and only on March 20 that he ordered a nationwide lockdown. By then, the National Health Service was running out of masks and gloves and the country “was on course for one of the worst infections of the most insidious virus to have hit the world in a century.” So far, Britain has registered 130,000 Covid-19 cases and some 18,000 deaths. A senior adviser to the prime minister said Johnson, who is currently recovering from a serious case of Covid-19, has been guilty of an astonishing lack of leadership. “There’s no way you’re at war if your PM isn’t there,” the unnamed adviser said. But Boris “liked his country breaks. He didn’t work weekends.”

Johnson is precisely the sloppy, lazy prime minister we feared he would be, said Polly Toynbee in The Guardian. “Here is the wrong man in the wrong job at the wrong time,” the opposite of the Winston Churchill he fancies himself. What makes him so “supremely unsuited to this particular darkest hour is his natural antipathy toward the state.” He has spent much of his nine months in office belittling experts and bureaucrats—the very people we now need to organize lockdowns and secure and distribute medical masks and ventilators—and promoted a pro-Brexit agenda that amounts to “break away, break things, and disrupt.” Now he is breaking Britain.

This is grossly unfair to Johnson, said John Rentoul in Independent.co.uk. Perhaps the prime minister could have shown “a greater sense of urgency,” but there is no evidence that he or his ministers ignored warnings from scientists. In fact, Johnson followed the advice of his top science advisers both at the start of the U.K.’s outbreak, when the plan was to allow the virus to spread among the young and healthy so that the population would build up herd immunity, and later, when evidence showed that the disease was being transmitted by asymptomatic carriers and could be contained only through a lockdown. That the scientists were wrong is not Johnson’s fault.

Yet the government has still not taken effective command of the crisis, said Bill Gardner in The Daily Telegraph. Despite severe shortages of medical gear in this country, British firms continue to ship “millions of pieces” of vital personal protective equipment to Europe every week. These companies would rather supply the NHS, but their “offers of help have been repeatedly ignored by the government.” Meanwhile, in hospitals across the U.K., unprotected doctors and nurses are left to “choose between exposing themselves to the virus or letting a patient die on their watch.”

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Re: What is Purchasing Department ตอบกลับ #3 เมื่อ: พฤษภาคม 16, 2021, 02:34:25 AM
5 Tips to Prepare for Your Property Settlement


1. Insurance


Haven't organised insurance yet? Get it now! It can be a risky practice to rely on the vendor's  insurance cover (or lack thereof) if something happens to the property during the period from exchange to settlement. Having adequate insurance in place will give you peace of mind.

2. Keys, codes and passes


Make sure you organise who has the keys and when you can collect them from the agent or your legal representative. Also, make sure you have the alarm codes (if any) and instruction manuals. Some purchasers want to collect the keys that day from the agent; others have the keys delivered to their solicitor after settlement. By sorting out the logistics beforehand, you can enjoy your property sooner (without setting off any house alarms!).

3. Final inspection


This is probably the most important inspection you will undertake, so you should organise it during daylight hours as close as possible to settlement and really take your time with it. Has any debris been left behind? Do the fittings and fixtures remain? Are the contractual inclusions actually in place? Have the exclusions been disposed of?

4. Final Title Search


Just like a final inspection, a final title search will inform you if there have been any dealings with or new interests in the legal ownership of the property. After all, you can't buy something from someone if they don't own it. You'll also need to remove any caveat you've placed on the title to enable the change of ownership to take place.

5. Cheque directions


Your legal advisor and lender will organise the cheques on your behalf, but it's up to you to make sure the settlement amounts and payees are correct before property settlement. Also, make sure the cheques have correct spellings - incorrectly issued non-negotiable bank cheques can hold up and delay a settlement, and that's the last thing you want!


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Re: What is Purchasing Department ตอบกลับ #4 เมื่อ: พฤษภาคม 16, 2021, 09:23:25 PM
Mergers and Acquisitions of Companies
External development is a form of business growth that results from the acquisition , participation, association or control of a company, companies or assets of other companies, expanding their current businesses or entering new ones. The term used in business jargon is M&A, which comes from Mergers and Acquisitions.

The reasons for a company to decide on external development (mergers, acquisitions, alliances ...) compared to the internal one has its origin in different causes that we will comment on in this definition.

Reasons for mergers and acquisitions
We will highlight the economic and market power reasons.

1. Economic reasons
Cost reduction : Through economies of scale and / or economies of scope through the integration of two companies whose productive and commercial systems are complementary to each other, generating synergies.
Get new resources and capabilities by joining or acquiring another company.

Replacement of the management team : It usually happens that, when management is replaced, there is a greater increase in value.
Obtaining tax incentives that can increase the benefits of acquisitions and mergers, due to the existence of exemptions or bonuses.

2. Motives for market power
It may be the only way to enter an industry and / or a country , as it has strong entry barriers.
When mergers and acquisitions are horizontally integrated , an increase in the market power of the resulting company is sought and, consequently, a reduction in the level of competition in the industry
.
When mergers and acquisitions are vertically integrated, companies that operate at different stages of the production cycle are integrated , the objective is to immediately achieve the advantages of vertical integration , both backwards and forwards.


 

Types of external development
The types of external development are:
The merger of companies : Integration of two or more companies so that at least one of the originals disappears.

The acquisition of companies : Operation of purchase and sale of packages of shares between two companies, keeping the legal personality each of them.

Cooperation or alliances between companies : Intermediate formula, links and relationships are established between companies, without loss of legal personality of any of the participants, who maintain their legal and operational independence.

 


Depending on the type of relationship established between the companies, they can be classified into:

Horizontal: The companies are competitors among themselves and belong to the same industry.
Vertical: Companies are located in different phases of the complete cycle of exploitation of a product.
Conglomerates: Companies have very different activities from each other.

Types of mergers
They are unions between two or more companies, with the loss of legal personality of at least one participant.

1. Pure fusion
Two or more companies of an equivalent size, agree to join, creating a new company to which they contribute all their resources; dissolving the primitive companies. (A + B = C)

2. Merger by absorption
One of the companies involved (absorbed) disappears, integrating its assets into the absorbing company. The absorbing company (A) continues to exist, but accumulates to its equity the corresponding to the absorbed company (B).

3. Merger with Partial Contribution of Assets
A company (A) contributes only a part of its assets (a) together with the other company with which it merges (B), either to a new company (C) that is created in the merger agreement itself, or to another pre-existing society (B), which is thus increasing its size (B '); it is necessary that the company contributing assets (A) does not dissolve.

Business Acquisitions Financing
The participation or acquisition of companies takes place when a company buys part of the capital stock of another company, with the intention of totally or partially dominating it.

Acquisition or participation in companies will give rise to different levels or degrees of control depending on the percentage of share capital of the acquired company in its possession and according to the way in which the rest of the securities are distributed among the other shareholders: large packages of shares in the hands of very few individuals or a large number of shareholders with little individual participation.

The purchase of a company can be done through a conventional purchase-sale contract, but in recent decades, two financial formulas have been developed:

Purchase using financial leverage or Leveraged Buy-Out (LBO) .
Public offer for the acquisition of shares (OPA).

1. Buying through financial leverage (LBO)
Buying through financial leverage (LBO) consists of financing a significant part of the acquisition price of a company through the use of debt.

This debt is secured, not only by the buyer's equity or creditworthiness, but also by the assets of the acquired company and its future cash flows. So after the acquisition, the debt ratio tends to reach very high values.

It may be the case that the purchase is made by the same managers of the company to be acquired. In this case we are facing a purchase by management or Management Buy-Out (MBO). The reason why they decide to launch an offer on the company they work for is to put the company in the right direction.

2. The public offer for the acquisition of shares (OPA)
The public offer for the acquisition of OPA shares occurs when a company makes an offer to purchase all or part of the capital stock to the shareholders of another listed company under certain conditions.



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Re: What is Purchasing Department ตอบกลับ #5 เมื่อ: กรกฎาคม 21, 2021, 11:40:59 PM
5 Tips to Prepare for Your Property Settlement


1. Insurance


Haven't organised insurance yet? Get it now! It can be a risky practice to rely on the vendor's  insurance cover (or lack thereof) if something happens to the property during the period from exchange to settlement. Having adequate insurance in place will give you peace of mind.

2. Keys, codes and passes


Make sure you organise who has the keys and when you can collect them from the agent or your legal representative. Also, make sure you have the alarm codes (if any) and instruction manuals. Some purchasers want to collect the keys that day from the agent; others have the keys delivered to their solicitor after settlement. By sorting out the logistics beforehand, you can enjoy your property sooner (without setting off any house alarms!).

3. Final inspection


This is probably the most important inspection you will undertake, so you should organise it during daylight hours as close as possible to settlement and really take your time with it. Has any debris been left behind? Do the fittings and fixtures remain? Are the contractual inclusions actually in place? Have the exclusions been disposed of?

4. Final Title Search


Just like a final inspection, a final title search will inform you if there have been any dealings with or new interests in the legal ownership of the property. After all, you can't buy something from someone if they don't own it. You'll also need to remove any caveat you've placed on the title to enable the change of ownership to take place.

5. Cheque directions


Your legal advisor and lender will organise the cheques on your behalf, but it's up to you to make sure the settlement amounts and payees are correct before property settlement. Also, make sure the cheques have correct spellings - incorrectly issued non-negotiable bank cheques can hold up and delay a settlement, and that's the last thing you want!


subprime mortgagequicken loans ratessmall personal loansmortgage application
lowest mortgage ratesbusiness line of creditmortgage broker near mebest small business loans
low interest personal loanscredit union loanshelp to buy equity loan
best mortgage rates 5 year fixedlowest home loan ratespersonal loan eligibilityshort term loans online
loans for those with bad creditpersonal loan interestquick easy loansdirect payday lenders
instant personal loanstart up loanshousing loan interest ratehome finance
debt consolidation loan ratesfast loan advancecar finance rates15 yr mortgage rates
commercial real estate loansworking capital loanelastic line of creditmortgage application
second mortgage ratescurrent home mortgage ratesfirst bank mortgagevehicle finance
commercial loan ratestypes of mortgage loansprivate money lendersbad credit business loans




Re: What is Purchasing Department ตอบกลับ #6 เมื่อ: กรกฎาคม 21, 2021, 11:41:33 PM
7 Tips Every Homeowner Need to Know About Insurance
1. WHAT IT COVERS
Most home insurance policies will pay for damage to your home & possessions in the events of storms, fire, theft, or vandalism. Home insurance also provides liability insureance if someone gets hurt on your property and decides to file a lawsuit. Home insurance can also cover the costs of a hotel if you are temporarity displaced from your house.

2. WHAT IT DOESN'T COVER
Standard policcies have exclusion, including; earthquakes, power failure, war, nuclear hazard, government action, faulty zoning, bad repair or workmanship, and defective maintenance. Flooding and water damage are usually only covered in certain conditions

3. YOU SHOULD SHOP AROUND
Take the time to research your prospective insurance agencies before you commit to a policy. Read reviews and consider recommendations from friends and family. Finding a cheap rate is great - but remember that in the case of an emergency you will need to be dealing with the insurance company directly. Having an insurance company with great customer service can really help alleviate some of the stress in an already stressful situation with your home.

4. HOW TO LOWER YOUR RATES
Did you know that having things like a working smoke detector and burglar alarms can lower your rates Preventative actions can reduce premiums. Insurance agents typically price your premium based on how much risk they foresee. So, by reducing your liability risks, you can qualify for lower rates.
You may also save some money by bundling your other insurance policies, like car or life insurance, with your home owners.

5. DON'T WAIT TO FILE A CLAIM
Make sure you report any possible claims as soon as possible. Many insurance companies have a time limit for reporting claims. If you wait too long, you may not be eligible for benefits, especially if waiting has caused the problem to worsen. This is especially true in instances of water damage - where mold can set it quickly and raise the costs of repair.

6. KEEP A RECORD
It is important to document everything that occurs during a loss. Write down the damages, and what you have done to help mitigate the damages.
In addition to saving receipts, contracts, and appraisals, document phone calls by writing down who you spoke to and when. Insurance claims can be cumbersome and confusing. Don't depend on your memory alone to remember all the details.

7. HOW JEWELRY IS COVERED
Jewelry is usually covered in a homeowner's policy - but beware - it is typically only covered to a certain amount. When you sign up for homeowner's insurance, be sure to ask your agent about the limits. If you own jewelry which has a value that exceeds the standard policy, you may want to consider buying supplemental insurance so that incase it is lost or stolen- you are covered 100%.






Re: What is Purchasing Department ตอบกลับ #8 เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 18, 2021, 02:09:12 AM
Save while working
Most people work to put bread on the table, but waste a good chunk of their pay in the office. How do you limit these expenses to get the most out of this hard-earned money?

Clothing
If you wear a uniform you are in luck because your work clothes cost you next to nothing. Otherwise, buy the best quality you can afford and maintain your outfits well to make them last you a long time. Resist the impulses and make sure the clothes and accessories you buy go with what you already have.

Transport
If possible, use public transport, carpooling, cycling, walking ... anything so as not to make the trip solo in your car. It pumps out a phenomenal amount of money.

Meal
To get an idea of ​​what they are costing you, write down how much you spend on bagels, sandwiches, and salads for a week. Watch out for shock when you add up! Reserve this money for your outings with colleagues or friends to a good restaurant and bring a snack. Most companies provide a fridge, coffee maker, and microwave, so you can vary the menus. Not only will you save money on food, but you'll eat healthier than in the small, fast-food restaurants near the office. If you're worried about going out on your own, get along with a colleague to eat together at the office or in a park. If you prefer solitude, eat while devouring a book that you are burning to finish.

Coffee
What don't we give for a cup of caoua? The prices of luxury cafes are so excessive that we do not know whether to laugh or cry. It's so much easier and more economical to make it at home and bring a full thermos to the office. Or buy flavored coffee powder: it's ready in the blink of an eye and costs even less.

Payroll deductions
How many employees sign their employment contract and then let the human resources or accounting department settle their payroll details? Big mistake! You must personally ensure the proper use of your money. This is the only way to make every penny grow.

Insurance
Ask an agent you trust to review the guarantees offered by your employer and tell you if they are worth their premium. No need to pay for too low a deductible or overlapping protection. Married people who both have employer insurance should be especially careful.

Automatic deposit
If your employer has an automatic paycheck deposit program (most businesses have one), join. Many banks reduce or eliminate processing fees in this case. It's faster, safer, and the money is there for you right away.




Re: What is Purchasing Department ตอบกลับ #9 เมื่อ: เมษายน 22, 2022, 12:41:01 AM
Dream Interpretation About Snake
Dream interpretations according to ancient texts related to dreaming interpretation of snakes with the meaning of dreams. And hit the lucky numbers from dreaming of seeing snakes as follows:

Dream interpretation snakes strap
Dream about a snake tying a search term, a garter snake, a snake, a slithering snake
meaning
Dreaming that a snake is strapped or slithering around the body, guessing that if you are single, you will meet your soulmate suddenly Notice that the dream If the snake bites the height of the body, such as strangling the neck, strangling the waist, the soulmate is lower than if it is a family member. In that dream, if you hold hands with the snake's body, you will receive a fortune as a son or a stray fortune, floating from a big gamble.

Dream interpretation of snake bites
Dreamed that a snake bites a search term, snake bites, snake bites, snake bites legs, snake bites head.
meaning
Dreaming that a snake bites, predicts that an enemy of the opposite sex will be malicious. or get favored by neighbors If the snake bites low It is a little misfortune, if the bite is high, it will be very bad. or otherwise will be ill due to travel accidents

Dream interpretation of seeing a cobra
Dream of seeing a cobra, search term, cobra, snake, snake bite
meaning
Dreaming of seeing a cobra predicts that hidden love may be revealed. If anyone has an affair or love that is hidden they may be caught.

Dream interpretation of seeing a python
Dreaming of seeing a python, a search term, a python, a snake, a slithering snake, a large snake
meaning
Dreaming of seeing a python predicts that there is a chance to find love that may be your true mate. And this love must endure in order to be successful.

Dream interpretation of seeing a king cobra
Dreaming of seeing a king cobra, a search term, a king cobra, a snake, a snake bite, a slithering snake
meaning
Dreaming of seeing Jong-Ang predicts that hidden love may be revealed. If anyone has an affair or love that is hidden they may be caught.

Dream interpretation of seeing a green snake
Dreaming of seeing a green snake, a search term, a green snake, a snake, a slithering snake
meaning
Dreaming of seeing a green snake predicts the beginning of a new relationship. It could be a new friend or a new lover.

Dream interpretation of catching a snake
Dreaming of catching a snake, a search term, catching a snake, a snake
meaning
Dreaming of catching a snake predicts that you may have a secret crush on someone. Or you may secretly like someone.

Dream interpretation of killing animals
Dream of killing animals, search terms, kill animals, kill snakes, kill cows, kill buffalo, kill tigers, kill snakes, kill dogs, kill pets, kill mad dogs, kill mad dogs
meaning
Dreaming of killing animals such as cows, buffaloes or domestic pets, predicting that they will be in trouble. because of the loss of love or family members in the house If you dream that you kill a poisonous animal such as a snake, a mad dog or a tiger, predict that you will be out of luck or a malicious enemy will defeat us if it is a case that will win.

Dream interpretation of the naga
Dreaming of seeing a Naga, a search term: naga, dragon, big snake, serpent, witness
meaning
Any woman dreaming that Naga or dragon or serpent comes to strangle us, guessing that who is single will get a partner. or get fortune from adults.

Dream interpretation of seeing a dragon
Dreaming of seeing a dragon, a search term, a dragon, a serpent, a serpent, a big snake
meaning
Dream of seeing a dragon or a serpent According to their own views in the house, predict that they will receive the patronage of an adult. or will receive a fortune by taking a risk.

Dream interpretation of a hole
Dreaming of a search word hole, a hole, falling into a pit, a snake pit, a snake pit
meaning
Dream of walking into a snake pit or the hole has broken tiles At the bottom of the hole, guessing that you will be out of luck or get out of disease or will suffer and have good fortune.

19 Most Frequent Dreams in the World
What Does It Mean to Dream of Owls
What Does It Mean to Dream of a Ship
What Does It Mean to Dream of Whales
What Does It Mean to Dream of Chocolate
What Does It Mean to Dream of Doors
What Does It Mean to Dream of Stars
What Does It Mean to Dream About Work
What Does It Mean to Dream of Elephants
What Does It Mean to Dream of Snow
What Does It Mean to Dream of Birds
What Does It Mean to Dream of Gold
What Does It Mean to Dream of Ghosts
What Does It Mean to Dream of Celebrities
What Does It Mean to Dream of Dolphins
What Does It Mean to Dream of Traveling
What Does It Mean to Dream of Bears
What Does It Mean to Dream of a War
What Does It Mean to Dream of Rain
What Does It Mean to Dream of Sharks
What Does It Mean to Dream of Bulls
What Does It Mean to Dream of Crocodiles
What Does It Mean to Dream of Snails
What Does It Mean to Dream of Crabs
What Does It Mean to Dream of Saving Someone
What Does It Mean to Dream of Garbage
What Does It Mean to Dream of Packing Your Bags
What Does It Mean to Dream of Fog
What Does It Mean to Dream of an Operation
What Does It Mean to Dream of Jewels
What Does It Mean to Dream of Roses
Dream Interpretation About Snake
Dream Interpretation About King
Dream Interpretation List



Re: What is Purchasing Department ตอบกลับ #10 เมื่อ: เมษายน 29, 2022, 06:00:49 PM
Dream About Teeth Falling Out
If you dream like this You are going through a very bad situation. It may happen to people close to you, family members, loved ones.

love
There are reasons for breaking up or being separated from each other without saying goodbye.

work
cause problems in operation.
 
finance
Money may be needed to treat family illnesses. 

Thai people and their beliefs belong together. especially beliefs about dreams A dream that can foretell future events. one of them is dream of teeth falling out We may have heard that some. If you dream that your teeth fall out, and your relatives die, what is the connection between your dreams about teeth falling out, and death? What can dreams like this tell us? And will it really happen? Find out in this article.

what dreams are made of

Before we go to dream that the teeth fall out. Let's get to know the process of creating dreams first. According to science Dreams are created by the brain's process of eliminating unnecessary information each day. and select useful datasets that will be stored in the long-term memory repository.

Many prophecies dream that teeth fall out.

ancient people believed If you dream that your teeth fall out, your teeth are broken, or your teeth are broken, this is a bad omen that someone in your household or an elderly relative is sick. some deaths Each tooth has a different meaning. We have compiled them below.

dream of teeth falling out

dreaming of teeth falling out The meaning will differ for each location of the loose tooth. But the overall meaning is the loss of a loved one, family or an ill relative. Can solve the problem by making merit to enhance the destiny to make life better. From heavy to light in which each tooth is said to include

Dreaming that the upper teeth fall out predicts that the paternal elder relative may have health problems, illnesses or birth defects.
unexpected life especially the elder relatives on the father's side and have the criteria to receive a floating fortune or have commercial luck

Dreaming that the lower teeth fall out predicts that the maternal adult relative may have health problems, illnesses or birth defects.
unexpected life especially the mother's elder relatives It was a bad dream. But there will be a criteria to get commercial luck. better job duties

Dreaming that your front teeth fell out , predicting that during this time, don't put too much effort into yourself. Whether it's work, friends or love
and be careful about health There may be joint pain, bone pain, or other illnesses that follow.

Dream of teeth falling out of mouth

Dreaming of teeth falling out of your mouth predicts that you may have the criteria for a long journey. or go abroad Be careful about your emotions. because there may be quarrels with the people around and you are eligible for a new job or there is an issue that requires a job change Beware of being stabbed in the back or someone brings trouble

dream of broken teeth

Dreaming that your teeth are broken predicts that you will have something to do with your money, property, and loved ones. and caring for the elders in the house more

dream of loose teeth

Dreaming of loose teeth predicts that unexpected events may occur with friends or close friends. Accident causing injury or may be sick

The number of teeth that fell out was predictable.

In addition to dreaming that teeth fall out, it can predict dreams. The number of teeth that fall out also means:

Dreaming that one of the upper teeth fell out predicts that be careful, younger people will cause problems. Beware of financial gossip
beware the cost Work has moved in a good way.

Dreaming that one of the lower teeth fell out predicts that meeting new friends of the opposite sex will bring good luck. Married people if there is a problem
Stay together so that you can get back together. Be careful of missing items. Even if money is a problem, someone will help you.

Dreaming that 2 upper teeth fall out, predicts that you must be careful in arguing with your lover. or conflicts with people close to work for
Be cautious because it may be blamed. may lose property from damaged belongings

Dreaming that 2 lower teeth fall out predicts that someone will disturb your mind. Beware of malicious enemies Love has people flirting with
older than flirting If thinking about doing business during this period is a good time.

Although dreaming of missing teeth, broken teeth, is what the ancients believed, but do not forget to live your life carefully. careless is the best and diligently make merit It will help us feel more comfortable.



Re: What is Purchasing Department ตอบกลับ #11 เมื่อ: กันยายน 23, 2022, 01:40:42 AM
Top 10 Scary Japanese Urban Legends
10. Teke-Teke


This is the Urban Legend about a girl who fell under a train and was cut in half. She became a vengeful spirit that moves using her hands and elbows, dragging herself while making the sound -Tek-Tek- … if you hear that noise, youre supposed to run. Those who are caught by the Tek Tek will recieve a fate like her - shes said to slash her victims in half so that they look like her, and possibly become wandering vengeful spirits as she is.

9. Slit Mouthed Woman


You may recognise this one from a number of Japanese movies and TV shows. The traditional name for this being is Kuchi-sake-onna and dates back over 300 years ago. She is a woman who was brutally mutilated by her husband after he found she was having an affair with another Samurai. This left her in death as a restless spirit. She is said to cover her mouth with a cloth mask, a fan or a scarf. If you approach her, shell ask you if you think shes pretty. If you answer yes, she will remove the mask and when the victim screams they will be slashed from ear to ear until they look like her. Even if you say no, shes said to follow you home and brutally murder you that night.

8. Daruma-san


This urban legend is more of an old game passed down through the years. You shower in a bath, turn off the lights and chant -Daruma-san fell down- while you wash your hair … its said that you will see a woman in your mind. She is Daruma-San. Shell be standing up in a bath. Youll see her slip and fall onto an old rusty tap. It goes straight through her eye and kills her. Then, you will feel her ghostly presence behind you. If you turn around - there she is. Black tangled hair, rotting clothes, one eye is bloodshot and the other is just a bloody, hollow eye socket. The game continues even further than that if you dare, but I think thats enough for you to understand this creepy urban legend.

7. Girl From The Gap


This Japanese story comes from peoples natural fear of what lies lurking in the cracks of a home. Do you ever see something move past the hinge of a door? Is that someone looking out from inside your wardrobe? Have you ever pictured a hand reaching out from between your bed and the floor? Well it could be the girl from the gap - a spirit that lives both physically and metaphorically -between worlds-. Its said that if you ever see her, she will ask if you want to play hide and seek. At that point the game is on. When you her between a gap again, shell drag you to an other worldly hell.

6. The Red Room


This is a very modern Japanese urban legend about a pop up ad thats red with black test. In a childs voice, it simply repeats the phrase -Do you like?-. A boy who got the popup tried to close it but it kept reappearing. Then, it changed to -Do you like red?- … he keeps trying to close it but it grows large and changes again to say -Do you like the red room?- … then, the site changes. All red and black. It has a list of names on it - his friends is at the bottom. And hand reaches out towards the boys neck from a video. tHE Ending gets even more twisted but guess what, its based on a real website. Its still out there. If you can find it, youll know the gruesome legend of the red room and if the horrible ending comes true for you.

5. The Human Pillars


This legend dates back to ancient times in Japan where its known as Hito-bashira. Back then, there was a belief that a human sacrifice sealed inside a structure would make a foundation more stable. This means that many old Japanese buildings are said to contain the spirits of the people who were sacrificed during their construction. One famous example is Matsue Castle where a woman was sealed inside the foundations during its construction. Now her spirit is said to haunt the castle and whenever a woman dances there, the castle shakes violently. Many building owners in Japan are open about their building being a Human Pillar.

4. The Snake Woman


This one comes from the old Japanese folklore pf Nure-onna which translates to wet woman. She is often described as having the head of a woman and the body of a snake - with long claws, snake eyes and jet black hair.  She carries with her a childlike bundle to lure in her victims. If a person tries to pick up the baby, they find its not a child at all. The bundle then becomes very heavy and stops the victim from fleeing. The snake woman then uses her long tongue to suck all of the blood from the victims body until they die.

3. Onibaba


She is a demon women that often appears in Japanese folk folklore. She will often appear as an old woman asking for help but if you get to close, she will slice you open with a knife and eat you. She is said to be the tormented spirit of a woman who accidently killed her pregnant daughter and unborn grandchild in an effort to find a cure for her friends child being sick. She was told to bring them the liver of an unborn child but when she finally killed her victims, she found they were her own family.

2. The Dream School


This one is extra creepy because apparently if you don't forget it within a week - it will happen to you. Lets see if this is true. One night, a boy had a dream about a school. The hallways looped forever, bringing him back to the start. Staircases led back to the first floor. As he got scared, he heard footsteps behind him. He ran until he found an emergency exit with a glass box and a key next to it. The glass had been smashed and there was a note saying it could be found in room 108. When he found that room, it was empty - no students - but there were backpacks hanging off every chair. There was a pounding on the door. He opened it, terrified, to find the hallways covered with dead children. Its said that he never woke up from his dream and if you don't forget the story in one week, youll meet the same fate. Don't worry though guys

1. Onryo


This is a traditional Japanese ghost belief about a vengeful spirt that can and will physically hurt the living. Its a very scary concept if youre only familiar with the western idea of ghosts which don't really take solid forms and so cant hurt humans with physical contact. Thats not true for an Onryo. They are vengeful and full of hate, stopping at nothing to enact the suffering they received when they were alive. For any of you guys who have seen The Grudge, this spirit is the influence for that creepy girl in that movie.










Re: What is Purchasing Department ตอบกลับ #12 เมื่อ: กันยายน 26, 2022, 01:21:52 AM
Best Survival Knives
CRKT Sketch Folder
The Sketch is a great example of what makes an excellent EDC knife. Simple, understated, and it just plain works. It has a blade length barely under 3 inches and stretches to a little over 6.5 inches when open. A frame lock keeps the blade secure while you work, and the 8Cr14MoV steel will keep a sharp edge. A thumb hole at the spine provides one-handed opening capability. The K-tip blade profile is very handy, especially when fine detail work is needed.

TOPS Knives XXX Dicer
Combine a wide spatula with a chef’s knife and you’re on the right track for the XXX Dicer. Part of the growing kitchen collection from TOPS Knives, it measures 8.88 inches from tip to butt, with the blade stretching 7 inches of that length. The handle is red and black G-10, providing a positive grip no matter what you’re slicing. The 440C steel blade will stand up to years of use, whether you’re in the kitchen or the backcountry.

TOPS Knives Street Spike
The Street Spike is simplicity itself. Start with a slab of quarter-inch 1095 steel and skeletonize the handle to reduce the weight. Radius the handle edges for comfort so you don’t need to add scales and you’re good to go. It's easy to carry, easy to conceal and easy to use for a wide range of tasks. Even with the Kydex sheath, it is small enough to fit into a pocket or on a neck chain. The plan was to create a no-frills tool that is easy to keep on your body and TOPS succeeded on both counts.

Spyderco Astute Folder
The Astute is a folder that punches way above its weight class. It has a four-position pocket clip as well as a lanyard hole, allowing a wide range of carry options. The blade is 8Cr13MoV steel, and it has a gently curving flat grind edge. A liner lock keeps you safe while you work and the textured G-10 scales keep the knife in your hand, even in cold or wet conditions. All in all, the Astute provides all the quality Spyderco is known for and at a value price point.

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Re: What is Purchasing Department ตอบกลับ #13 เมื่อ: ธันวาคม 03, 2022, 12:40:09 PM
What late filers need to know
Did you miss the tax deadline? asked Blake Ellis in CNN.com. If you’re owed a refund, the good news is that “you won’t get hit with a penalty.” But for taxpayers who owe money, you’re out of luck. “By both failing to file and failing to pay on time, you will incur a maximum penalty of 5 percent for each month after the deadline.” And if you’re more than 60 days late, you’ll be fined $135 or 100 percent of the unpaid tax, whichever amount is smaller. The safest way to avoid a fine is, of course, to file on time. But if that just isn’t possible, ask the IRS for a six-month extension. Just “remember, even if you get an  extension, you still have to pay 90 percent of the tax owed by the filing deadline.”

Beware of cards bearing gifts
If you’ve been receiving a flood of credit-card offers, you aren’t alone, said Kara McGuire in the Minneapolis Star Tribune. Credit experts say card offers “are hitting the mailbox at rates not seen in a long while.” Since fewer Americans carry a credit-card balance these days, lenders are trying to make up lost profits by netting new customers and encouraging existing ones to use their cards more often. The offers are often tempting, including 0 percent balance transfers, waived annual fees, and thousands of free frequent-flier miles. “But there’s usually a catch.” If you get an offer that seems too good to pass up, read “every last bit of fine print.” Take stock of your financial situation, too, and make sure you aren’t “missing any terms or conditions that would cost” you in the long run.

Rules for smart renters
Before signing a lease, take care “to avoid common and costly renter’s errors,” said A.J. Smith in Credit.com. The most important— and obvious—thing to do is to read the lease. “Bring up any issues you have with the document” before you sign, and make sure you fully understand any fees and requirements. That includes policies covering security deposits utilities, neighbor disputes, pets, and roommates. Next, consider renter’s insurance, which will protect your personal property and cover you from liability if anyone gets hurt in your new place. Finally, “it’s a good idea to take photos or videos documenting the apartment’s condition and note any preexisting damage” before you move in. Your security deposit will thank you.

Help choosing disability insurance
If your company has ditched long-term disability insurance, don’t despair, said Ron Lieber in The New York Times. Many employers are lowering their disability-insurance payouts or leaving workers to find their own coverage. The insurance replaces some fraction of your income in the event an illness or injury prevents you from working; premiums tend to run roughly 1 to 3 percent of your annual salary. But few people give the coverage much thought, and deciding on a policy can be tough. Luckily, you can see whether disability insurance is a smart purchase for you with the help of a site called PolicyGenius.com, which aims to eliminate consumers’ confusion with an online “insurance checkup” tool that can provide quotes and clear comparisons for different types of coverage and policies.

Avoiding hotel scams
Beware of hotel booking sites bearing deals, said Alina Tugend in The New York Times. In what travel experts label “a systemic industry problem,” a growing number of customers are being duped “by promises of great deals” on official-looking websites. But in reality, they are being pushed to affiliate sites, incurring unwanted charges, and getting lost in a maze of fine print and Byzantine booking policies. Customers looking to book online should be “careful of what you click,” avoiding third-party sites and, whenever possible, booking directly from the hotel website. And if you need another reason to “always pay online with a credit card,” here it is: Unlike debit cards or money orders, you can dispute unwanted credit card charges before paying up.

How debt collectors track their prey
There’s nowhere to hide from debt collectors, said Gerri Detweiler in Credit.com. While it’s hard for just about anyone to get off the grid these days, if you’re behind on a debt, it’s all but impossible. Debt collection agencies “have many tools at their disposal” to track you down, starting with information you provided to the original lender. When that fails, debt collectors might turn to your credit report and public databases, which can provide information about other accounts, address histories, and name variations. And forget Facebook. Collectors can comb through your social media postings to get information about your income, assets, spending patterns, location, employer, even banking habits. Some firms steer clear of this tactic, “but for the moment it’s probably safe to say that anything you post is fair game.”

Time to prioritize your bills
When it comes to paying your bills, you’re probably doing it all wrong, said Catey Hill in MarketWatch.com. While paying your mortgage before your credit card is always smart, many Americans are still putting their car loans ahead of those debts, “a trend that’s been happening for at least a decade.” Financial planners say that’s plain backward, in part because most Americans have access to public transportation. But even when paying all your bills on time isn’t possible, savvy consumers should always put the mortgage first. When you do need a break, “call the company and ask for a payment extension.” If the first person says no dice, “ask to speak to a supervisor,” who may be able to exercise some discretion.

IRS revises overseas tax rules
The Internal Revenue Service is easing up on its overseas crackdown, said Brian Knowlton in The New York Times. The agency has been aggressively pursuing overseas tax cheats, but criticism that its methods “had disproportionately hurt small taxpayers guilty of innocent oversights” has forced the service to revise some of its rules. Among the changes is an expansion of the voluntary disclosure program, removing the existing $1,500 limit on unpaid taxes and empowering the IRS to determine whether or not the taxpayer’s “failure to file previously was ‘non-willful.’” Those deemed to have complied will be spared any penalties, but “anyone remaining out of compliance” could face penalties of up to 50 percent of the taxes due, nearly double the current rate of 27 percent.

Don’t waste a dime on old tech
If you’re looking to save money, start by ditching obsolete technology, said AnnaMaria Andriotis in MarketWatch.com. Your pay-TV subscription should be the first thing to go. More and more consumers are cutting the cable and switching to services like Hulu and Netflix, “which provide much of the same programming at a fraction of the price.” Landlines are out, too, with many users switching full time to cellphones and video-chatting services like Skype. For drivers, rather than paying $300 for a new GPS, many are relying on free map apps instead. And don’t bother with a “point and shoot” camera now that smartphones are “quickly catching up” in terms of photo quality.

The rules for rewards cards
Don’t forfeit your rewards, said Michele Lerner DailyFinance.com. According to a new study from CardHub, “while credit card companies provide about $48 billion in rewards each year, about one third of those rewards are never redeemed.” Some of that money is left behind by forgetful consumers, but the shortfall also has to do with the limits on how rewards can be redeemed. Common requirements include minimum spending thresholds nd clauses that cause points to expire after a missed payment. If you’re shopping for a new card, remember that cash-back rewards are still best, since they “have the bonus of letting you use your rewards to pay your bill.” Lastly, be wary of deals that offer big signon bonuses and low introductory rates. The savings today could cost you rewards points down the road if you ever miss a payment.

Skip the holiday gift card
If you’re shopping for stocking stuffers, steer clear of gift cards, said Anthony Giorgianni in ConsumerReports.com. Recent regulations “have made gift cards safer,” but there are still “many drawbacks.” Just think of gift cards “as cash with lots of strings attached.” Some cards carry hefty fees, including purchase fees and dormancy fees. And unlike traditional debit and credit cards, gift cards carry “no right to dispute purchases made with gift cards, even if there’s an error or fraud.” Finally, if the card’s retailer goes belly up, you could end up “holding worthless plastic.” If you can’t come up with a traditional gift, “just give a check or cash, which can be used anywhere.”

JetBlue increases fees, adds seats
JetBlue is joining the baggage fee club, said David Koenig in the Associated Press. The airline announced last week it will create three ticket classes beginning next year and charge passengers in the cheapest class to check a bag. The two highest classes will include at least one free checked bag, with fees for additional luggage. JetBlue “declined to give a price for the bag fee,” though the carrier said pricing “would fluctuate with demand.” The move leaves Southwest as the only large U.S. airline that allows all passengers to check at least one bag for free. JetBlue will also add 15 seats to its Airbus A320 planes, increasing flight capacity to 165 from 150, and reduce average legroom from more than 34 inches between rows to 33 inches.

A budget for holiday spending
Don’t get stuck “with a week or two of ramen noodle dinners” in January because you overspent your holiday budget, said Maryalene LaPonsie in DailyFinance.com. The average consumer will spend $804 during this year’s holiday season, according to the National Retail Foundation, and more than a third of shoppers will go over their budget. In order to stay within your means, write down each of your holiday expenses in advance, including food costs, “the white elephant gift for the family party, the office Secret Santa exchange, and all the service workers you tip extra.” To save some dough, think of giving presents that “cost more time than money,” like knitted scarves, baking mixes, or even chores you can offer friends and family. Finally, embrace your inner Scrooge. Once you have crossed someone off your list, “it’s time to stop shopping for them.”

Credit scores and car insurance
Bad credit could be driving up your car insurance, said Andrea Coombes in The Wall Street Journal. A new study of five large auto insurers has found that credit history can make or break a driver’s premium, leaving motorists with no credit paying 65 percent more than those with good credit. Depending on where you live, that differential can go even higher. In Washington, D.C., drivers with no credit can pay premiums 126 percent higher than those with good credit. Drivers in California, Massachusetts, and Hawaii can rest easy—those states ban the use of credit histories to set car insurance rates. But for everyone else, the findings are another reminder to keep your credit in check.

So long to salary secrecy
Are workers becoming more open about their paychecks? asked Alina Tugend in The New York Times. “Discussing money, as it is often said, is the last taboo.” But thanks to a push by federal authorities for more pay equality and the rise of salary-comparing websites like Glassdoor.com, that taboo may be “on the wane.” Finding out that a co-worker is earning more might be upsetting, but pay transparency can be a good thing. “Studies show that when pay is confidential, workers often believe the salary distributions are more unfair than they really are.” And “when pay is open,” workers “can directly ask why someone is earning more and how to equalize the salaries.” Widespread transparency may be a long way off, but employees should “know they are allowed to talk about salaries and can’t be punished for it,” because of federal laws that say employers can’t forbid workers from discussing wages.

Check your benefits
It’s never too early to look at your Social Security statement, said Michelle Singletary in The Washington Post. “It used to be that a few months before each birthday, you would get a statement from the Social Security Administration telling you your estimated benefit.” The agency pulled the plug on paper statements a few years ago, but workers who want a peek at their future can view their statements online. The portal, at SocialSecurity.gov, requires setting up an account, but retirees “can get benefit-verification letters, change their address and phone number, and input or change direct deposit information.” For those of us who are still working, the website is a good way to make sure earnings are correctly reported.

Don’t raid your 401(k)
Quit treating your retirement savings like “a piggy bank,” said John Schmoll in Daily Finance .com. More and more Americans are “pilfering from their 401(k) accounts.” In 2011, American workers withdrew $57 billion from their 401(k)s prematurely—a 37 percent increase from 2003. The trend has been fueled in part by younger workers cashing out of their company-backed savings plans when they change jobs. But early withdrawals are not good. In fact, the best thing to do when switching jobs is to either open an IRA or roll your existing 401(k) into your new employer’s plan. “Not only will this allow you to avoid losing money due to early withdrawal penalties, but it will also keep the power of compound growth on your side as you build up a retirement nest egg.”

Planning a career change
Changing careers can be “terrifying,” but there are ways to ease the transition, said AJ Smith in Credit.com. First of all, “remember that the grass isn’t always greener,” so be sure to learn as much as possible about your new career before ditching your current one. Once you decide to move, “make yourself a good fit.” If more education or training is required, you’ll need to “look carefully at how this will affect your finances.” If possible, land a parttime job or internship “to get your feet wet” while you’re still employed, and “get that added degree or certification at night or on weekends.” It’s also best to build up an emergency fund, since starting a new career may mean taking an initial pay cut or even going into debt while you hunt for a job.

What to know about secured cards
If you’re trying to rebuild your credit, consider a secured credit card, said Michael Estrin in Bankrate.com. “Unlike traditional credit cards, secured cards require the cardholder to put down a cash deposit that serves as collateral if the bill isn’t paid on time.” But don’t forget to read the fine print. Secured cards can carry higher interest rates, and often charge fees for exceeding the credit limit or making late payments. And keep an eye on your deposit. While some issuers will refund your down payment and convert the account to an unsecured card, others simply “close the secured account and offer the cardholder the opportunity to open a new unsecured account.” That’s good news if you need your cash back, but remember that closing accounts can also impact your credit score.

Letting go of landlines
Is it time to ditch your landline? asked Tara Siegel Bernard in The New York Times. The government estimates that 38.2 percent of households now do without landline phones, relying solely on wireless or Internet-based phones. But while cutting the cord might save you money, there “are some factors to consider.” When emergencies strike, traditional landlines can be more reliable than wireless phones, since it’s easier for dispatchers to pinpoint a caller’s location. Landlines also use “the old copper wire system of circuits and switches, which are generally self-powered.” Internet-powered phone services—such as Verizon’s FiOS and AT&T’s U-verse—use fiberoptic lines, which can fail when the power goes out. And contracts with the “more nimble” Internet-based phone providers are not always subject to “the same regulations and consumer protections as traditional lines.”

New rules on mortgages
If you’re in the market for a mortgage, brush up on the rules, said Les Christie in CNN .com. New guidelines from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau went into effect last week, aiming to “lower the risk of defaults and foreclosures.” Lenders will now need to “determine that a borrower has the income and assets to afford to make payments throughout the life of the loan,” which means borrowers can expect stricter underwriting scrutiny. And since “lenders will be required to document” more information about borrowers, count on “more paperwork and longer processing times.” The new rules stipulate that “your debt-to-income ratio generally must be below 43 percent,” though banks can still give you credit if other factors, such as substantial assets, mitigate the risk of default.

When debt troubles surface
“If you’re in debt, you don’t get to set the repayment terms,” said Bev O’Shea in Credit .com. But that doesn’t mean there’s no room to negotiate. “Collectors are smart enough to know some money is better than no money, and their job is to get you to pay as much as possible as quickly as possible.” If you’re behind on a bill, try to work out a payment arrangement “you can stick with,” and whatever you do, “get it in writing before you pay. If the debt winds up in court, you’ll want documentation of your agreement.” Check your credit report regularly for errors, and “work toward getting your credit back on track by addressing any derogatory items.”

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